Helen Brooke Taussig is known as the founder of pediatric cardiology for her innovative work on "blue baby" syndrome
In 1944, Taussig, surgeon Alfred Blalock, and surgical technician Vivien Thomas developed an operation to correct the congenital heart defect that causes the syndrome. Since then, their operation has prolonged thousands of lives, and is considered a key step in the development of adult open heart surgery the following decade. Dr. Taussig also helped to avert a thalidomide birth defect crisis in the United States, testifying to the Food and Drug Administration on the terrible effects the drug had caused in Europe.
Helen Taussig was born 1898 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Frank W. Taussig, a well-known economist and professor at Harvard University, and Edith Guild, one of the first students at Radcliffe College. Her mother died when she was only 11, and her grandfather, a physician who had a strong interest in biology and zoology, may have influenced her decision to become a doctor.
Despite suffering from dyslexia—a reading impairment—Taussig excelled in higher education. She graduated from the Cambridge School for Girls in 1917 and became a champion tennis player during her two years of study at Radcliffe. She earned a B.A. degree from the University of California at Berkeley in 1921, and after studying at Harvard Medical School and Boston University she transferred to Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to pursue her interest in cardiac research.
Taussig graduated from Hopkins in 1927, and served as a fellow in cardiology at Johns Hopkins Hospital for the next year, followed by a two-year pediatrics internship. In 1930 she was appointed head of the Children's Heart Clinic at the Johns Hopkins Hospital pediatric unit, the Harriet Lane Home, where she worked until her retirement in 1963.
By the time Taussig graduated from Hopkins, she had lost her hearing and relied on lip-reading and hearing aids for the rest of her career. Some of her innovations in pediatric cardiology have been attributed to her ability to distinguish the rhythms of normal and damaged hearts by touch, rather than by sound.
Anoxemia or "blue baby" syndrome, the congenital heart condition which Taussig specialized in, is caused by a defect that prevents the heart from receiving enough oxygen. Taussig used fluoroscopy, a new x-ray technique, to establish that babies suffering from anoxemia had a leaking septum (the wall that separates the chambers of the heart), and an underdeveloped artery leading from the heart to the lungs.
In 1941 Taussig suggested an idea for an operation that might help children with "blue baby" to her colleagues at Hopkins—surgeon Alfred Blalock and surgical technician Vivien Thomas. On November 9, 1944 Taussig and Blalock first performed this new operation on a child with anoxemia, (after Thomas had experimented extensively with the procedure). They later repeated it successfully on two more patients.
They published their results in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The technique was named the Blalock-Taussig operation, and was soon used worldwide. Taussig continued her research on cardiac birth defects and published her important work Congenital Malformations of the Heart, in 1947.
In 1954 Helen Taussig received the prestigious Lasker Award for her work on the blue baby operation, and in 1959 she was awarded a full professorship at Johns Hopkins University, one of the first women in the history of the school to hold that rank. A founder of the subspecialty of pediatric cardiology, Taussig was elected president of the American Heart Association in 1965, and was the first woman recipient of the highest award given by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 1964 Taussig received the Medal of Freedom from President Lyndon Johnson.
Source: Changing the Face of Medicine
At the Harriet Lane Home Dr. Taussing became interested in rheumatic fever and congenital heart defects and began studying "blue babies," infants whose colour at birth indicated inadequate oxygenation of their blood. With the introduction of more advanced x-ray machines, she started to notice some interesting patterns in her blue babies. One day, she noticed something that nobody had ever realized before. How could it be, wondered Helen, that some blue-babies lived longer than others? While some blue-babies died after only a few days, others lived for months and even years.
Helen Taussig knew that all babies were born with hearts that were slightly different from grown-ups. The most important difference was a very special blood vessel called the ductus arteriosus. Taussig knew that this blood vessel normally closed by itself after birth. She also knew that the timing of when the ductus closed varied between people. By using her stethoscope, she could tell when a child's heart was making the change towards becoming adult-like.
Her studies soon led her to appreciate that most cyanotic heart babies had an enlarged right ventricle, and that complete circulation of the blood to the lungs was prevented. She connected the downward march of cyanotic heart disease and death with anoxaemia and first recognised that patients with a patent ductus and cyanotic heart disease did far better than those without, and that closure of the ductus in such circumstances was followed by a worsening of the condition. She reasoned that if the ductus arteriosus could be kept open or if an artificial pathway could be constructed, the blue babies would get blood to the lungs and do much better.
When Alfred Blalock came to Johns Hopkins in 1941, Taussig suggested to him that the construction of a patent ductus might provide a solution to the anoxia of children with Fallot’s tetralogy or "blue baby" syndrome, a syndrome caused by a congenital heart defect that deprives the blood of the necessary amount of oxygen. With Blalock's brilliant technician, Vivien Thomas, they developed an idea for an operation to help children with cyanotic congenital heart defect,
Blalock and Thomas, continued to move forward with the problem of providing oxygen to the pulmonary artery. A shunt first tried at Vanderbilt ultimately provided the answer. After much work on laboratory animals, the pioneering infants surgery called the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt was successfully performedon November 29, 1944. Although the frail child died months later in a second operation, the child survived long enough to demonstrate the survival of a surgical procedure that would save the lives of tens of thousands of children.
"He's a lovely colour now!"
The success of the operation brought Taussig recognition as the founder of paediatric cardiology.
In 1945, Helen Taussig and Alfred Blalock published a joint paper on the first three operations in the Journal of the American Medical Association; this publication had an immediate worldwide impact. Taussig and Blalock made numerous clinical presentations and case demonstrations in both Europe and the United States. The success of the procedure attracted many patients to Johns Hopkins for treatment, and it also brought many physicians to learn the techniques of the procedure.
Preventing a thalidomide disaster in the USA
Despite the large number of children whose lives have been saved by the Blalock-Taussig operation, her most important contribution to society occurred in the 1960's. In the late 1960s and early 1960s, thalidomide, a tranquillising drug, had produced large numbers of deformed newborns in Europe. In January 1962 one of her students drew her attention to these congenital malformations, known as phocomelia, occurring in Germany and England and possibly caused by thalidomide.
Taussig saw the emergency and in February went to Europe to check thalidomide reports. By the end of her tour through Europe, she was convinced that the sleeping pill was causing the birth defects and that more people had to be warned. She returned to the United States where she addressed the American College of Physicians about thalidomide in April 1962, and reported her findings to the Food and Drug Administration.
The U. S. Government as well as doctors throughout America took her recommendations seriously, and the use of the sleeping pill by pregnant women was stopped. As early as in March, 1963 a law requiring more careful drug testing went into effect.
Honours and recognition
- In 1954 Helen Taussig received the prestigious Lasker Award for her work on the blue baby operation.
- In 1959 she was awarded a full professorship at Johns Hopkins University, one of the first women in the history of the school to hold that rank.
- In 1964, Dr. Taussig received the Medal of Freedom from President Lyndon Johnson
- A founder of the subspecialty of pediatric cardiology, Taussig was elected president of the American Heart Association in 1965, and was the first woman recipient of the highest award given by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Johns Hopkins University named the "Helen B. Taussig Children's Pediatric Cardiac Center" in her honor, and in 2005 the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine named one of its four colleges in her honor.
- Dr. Taussig received international recognition and honors for her contributions to medicine, including the French Chevalier Legion d’Honneur, the Italian Feltrinelli Prize, the Peruvian Presidential Medal of Honor and the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award.
- In the 2004 HBO movie Something the Lord Made, Dr. Taussig was portrayed by Mary Stuart Masterson.
Most widely held works by Helen B Taussig
- Congenital malformations of the heart by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 16 editions published between 1947 and 1961 in English and Undetermined and held by 358 libraries worldwide
- Cardiovascular surgery : panel discussions ( Book ). 2 editions published in 1956 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
- Cardiovascular surgery. Panel discussions by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
- Congenital malformations of the heart/ 1, General considerations by Helen B Taussig( Book ). 1 edition published in 1960 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
- Specific malformations by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1960 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
- General considerations by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1960 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
- Congenital malformations of the heart/ 2, Specific malformations by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1960 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
- Congenital malformations of the heart ( Book ). 5 editions published between 1947 and 1960 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
- Congenital malformations of the heart. Vol. 1. General considerations by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 3 editions published in 1960 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
- Congenital malformations of the heart. Vol.2, Specific malformations by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 2 editions published in 1960 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
- Malformaciones congénitas del corazón by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 2 editions published between 1947 and 1950 in Spanish and held by 2 libraries worldwide
- World trends in cardioloogy ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
- Reminiscences of Helen Brooke Taussig : oral history, 1975 by Helen B Taussig. 2 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
- Cardiovascular Surgery. Panel discussions. Edited by H. B. Taussig ... and A. S. Cain by Helen Brooke TAUSSIG ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
- Interviews with people documenting their roles in the fields of health service, maternal and child care, family planning, and reform of abortion laws. V.1: Sarah R. Weddington; v.2: Helen B. Taussig; v.3: Lana C. Phelan; v.4: Sarah and Christopher Tietze; v.5: Patricia Maginnis.
- Helen B. Taussig : transcript of interview / Sept. 15, 1976 by Helen B Taussig ( Book ). 1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Most widely held works about Helen B Taussig
- Women in medicine by Jacqueline C Kent ( Book )
- To heal the heart of a child : Helen Taussig, M.D by Joyce Baldwin (Book)
- Doctors the history of scientific medicine revealed through biography by Sherwin B Nuland (Visual)
- A gentle heart : the life of Helen Taussig by Gerri Lynn Goodman (Book)
- Dr. Helen Taussig (Recording)